The human body is fine-tuned to Earth’s gravity. A team headed by Professor Oliver Ullrich from the University of Zurich’s Institute of Anatomy is now conducting an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) to study whether this also applies to human cells. On the evening of April 18, the transporter spaceship Dragon lifted off from the Cape Canaveral launch center in Florida with a cargo of UZH immune cells on board.
The drug ivermectin is used around the world to combat parasites in humans and animals. The active ingredient is also known to harm dung-degrading beneficial organisms. An international research team headed up by evolutionary biologists at the University of Zurich have now demonstrated that certain dung organisms react more sensitively to ivermectin than previously assumed. Hence there is a need for more sophisticated field tests.
Apr 10, 2014 Camels emit less methane than cows or sheep
When digesting ruminants exhale methane. Their contribution to this global greenhouse gas is considerable. So far the assumption had been that camels with similar digestion produce the same amount of the climate-damaging gas. However, researchers at the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich have now shown camels release less methane than ruminants.
In mammals, embryonic cranial development is modular and step-wise: The individual cranial bones form according to a defined, coordinated schedule. The typical increase in the size of the brain in mammals in the course of evolution ultimately triggered changes in this developmental plan, as a study conducted on embryos of 134 species of animal headed by palaeontologists from the University of Zurich reveals.
Mar 31, 2014 Using different scents to attract or repel insects
Flowering plants are able to make flexible use of their scents. If the focus is on pollination they attract insects with the scent of their flowers. If they are infested with parasites, they reduce the release of floral scents which then attracts more beneficial partner insects for their defence. This has been demonstrated by a Swiss-Italian team led by evolutionary biologists from the University of Zurich using a plant that is closely related to rapeseed.
Not only folded proteins fulfil important functions in the human body; unfolded or intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) likewise assume major tasks. Researchers at the University of Zurich have observed how molecular forces influence protein structure. The unfolded proteins become smaller when exposed to elevated temperatures and density stress.
Immediately after the biggest extinction event of all time there were once again functioning and complete food webs in the oceans of the Early Triassic. Contrary to previous assumptions there were large predators, too. Large predatory fish and amphibians, and later dinosaurs too, were the last link in the food chain. This is demonstrated in new studies by palaeontologists at the Universities of Zurich and Utah, USA.